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    Men’s Cancer Screenings

    David Moore, MD Deaconess Clinic Urology 10/23/2023
    The annual “No Shave November” campaign supports prostate and testicular cancer awareness and provides a great opportunity to share information related to cancer screenings for men.  

    Prostate Cancer
    Before I discuss prostate cancer, let me explain some anatomy. The prostate gland is part of the male reproductive system. It’s located between the bladder and the urethra. Its function is to produce some of the components of semen. Prostate cancer begins when cells in the prostate gland start to grow uncontrollably.

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men (behind skin cancer) and about one in 7 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in his lifetime. Prostate cancer almost always affects men over the age of 55; however, some men younger than that are also at risk.

    Prostate cancer can be detected early, which improves both survival rates and treatment outcomes. 
    Prostate Cancer Screening Guidelines
    There are two components to prostate cancer screening:  PSA and DRE. 
    • A PSA is a blood test that detects elevations of prostate specific antigen, which can be a sign of prostate cancer.
    • A DRE is a digital rectal exam, which is an exam where a physician inserts a gloved index finger into a man’s rectum, feeling the prostate gland for any abnormalities.
    Various medical and government entities provide recommendations for when and how to use these screening tests. In recent years, their recommendations have changed and no longer exist as one shared opinion. When the PSA was first introduced, within only a few years, the death rate from prostate cancer dropped by 50%; however, many men were also being diagnosed with lower-risk (not as aggressive) prostate cancers that may not have required treatment.

    The net benefit of PSA screening, overall, was small, with about 2 deaths per 1,000 men prevented with screening; this is similar to other cancer screenings. After learning this new information, some groups continued to advocate for regular screenings while other groups advocated for fewer screenings. Now, the PSA recommendation is based on a consideration of both risks of not diagnosing prostate cancer early, as well as recognizing the harms of “overtreating” a less-aggressive cancer.
    For prostate cancer screening, I follow the guidelines of the American Urological Association, the AUA, of which I’m a member.

    Here are the screening recommendations I follow and share with my patients:
    • Men aged 55-69 should discuss with their doctor the risk and benefits of PSA screening and whether or not it is right for them.
    • Men older than 69 or younger than 55 who have risk factors for prostate cancer, including family history, African American heritage and any known genetic mutations should talk with their doctor about earlier and continued screenings.
    • Anyone with a PSA greater than 3, or with an abnormality on the digital rectal exam, should meet with a urologist.
    Prostate Cancer Treatment Options
    Once a man has been diagnosed with prostate cancer, there are three primary treatment categories:
    • Active surveillance.  This is an option for “lower risk” type of prostate cancer. If a man chooses this option, he will have regular testing and visits to monitor for any changes.
    • Surgical removal of the prostate. Urologists often use robotic technology for this procedure.
    • Radiation treatment performed by a radiation oncologist; either external radiation beams or radioactive implants.

    Because each patient and case is unique, I work with men, their families and their primary care physician to determine what treatment(s) are best for each patient.
    Testicular Cancer
    Testicular cancer is a cancer of one or both testicles. The testes are the external glands located in the scrotum below the penis and are part of the male reproductive system.

    While more rare than prostate cancer, testicular cancer can occur in any male at any age—from birth through elderly ages. It commonly affects younger men and adolescents (ages 15-40) and it’s one of the most common cancers in teenage boys.

    There are some common risk factors for testicular cancer (besides being male): a personal/family history of testicular cancer, a history of infertility, and/or a history of undescended testicle(s). 

    Testicular Cancer Signs, Symptoms and Treatment
    Testicular cancer is almost always detected by self-exam—meaning the patient noticed a nodule or lump; this is generally a painless lump. I recommend that monthly self-exams of the testicles begin at puberty and continue through adulthood. Exams in the shower are often easier, as lumps can be better detected when the skin is soapy and wet.

    Any man who notices a change in his testicles should notify his doctor right away.

    Testicular cancer treatment starts with surgical removal of the testicle that has the cancerous tumor. We also perform imaging tests of the abdomen to look for signs that the cancer has spread. Many men are cured by the surgery, but if we see signs of spread, or the cancer is higher-risk, urologists and oncologists will work together to determine if chemo, radiation or additional surgery is recommended.

    In Summary 
    If you would like to learn more about men’s cancers, I can recommend the following websites:
    The American Urological Association
    The Urology Care Foundation

    Please share this information with the men in your life to help them make good choices related to their health.   

    Learn more about the author

    David Moore, MD
    Specialty: Urology
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